CO2-Saving Building Materials
In the construction sector as well as in architecture, large volumes of materials need to be processed and disposed of. In order to increase resource efficiency in these sectors, near-natural CO2-saving building materials need to be developed as replacements for mineral materials that have a large carbon footprint. Furthermore, it is essential that these new materials can be passed on for further use when it is time for their disposal. These types of materials need to be easily recyclable and, if they cannot be passed on for further use, it must be possible to dispose of them by means of incineration without any harmful substances being emitted. Material and building systems need to be developed with components that are predominantly made from near-natural, bio-based materials. On the one hand, the components used in timber engineering must be made more sustainable, for example by using biological or bio-based adhesives, bonding agents, and coating systems. On the other hand, there is a need for moldable matrix materials as substitutes for synthetic stone and concrete in order to replace mineral-based bricks and other high-volume building materials, at least in some areas of building construction.
The Limy Brick project focused on the development of a brick system based on mushroom spawn and wood chippings, resulting in a completely bio-based matrix material. The ongoing Myco Matrix research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research builds on the Limy Brick project. The aim is to develop a material combination consisting of mushroom spawn and wood-based panels that can be used to produce lightweight boards in sandwich construction, for example, which can be used for wall and ceiling panels and as statically active elements for bracing walls or load-bearing ceiling constructions. The Institute of Natural Materials Technology at TU Dresden is a partner in the project.